Posts Tagged ‘application’
Programming cells may soon become as easy as programming a computer. Just as computer software designers create programming for computers, scientists have created a programming language that allows them to design DNA-encoded circuits that can give new function to living cells.
Using this language, anyone can write a program for the function they want, such as detecting and responding to certain environmental conditions. They can then generate a DNA sequence that will achieve it.
“It is literally a programming language for bacteria,” says Christopher Voigt, an MIT professor of biological engineering. “You use a text-based language, just like you’re programming a computer. Then you take that text and you compile it and it turns it into a DNA sequence that you put into the cell, and the circuit runs inside the cell.”
In the new software — called Cello — a user first specifies the kind of cell they are using and what they want it to do: for example, sense metabolic conditions in the gut and produce a drug in response. They type in commands to explain how these inputs and outputs should be logically connected, using a computing language called Verilog that electrical engineers have long relied on to design silicon circuits. Finally, Cello translates this information to design a DNA sequence that, when put into a cell, will execute the demands.
The good thing about it is that it’s very simple, without many of the intricacies often encountered in programming.
“You could be completely naive as to how any of it works. That’s what’s really different about this,” Voigt says. “You could be a student in high school and go onto the Web-based server and type out the program you want, and it spits back the DNA sequence.”
For now, all these features have been customized for the E. coli bacteria, one of the most common in studies, but researchers are working on expanding the language to other strands of bacteria.
Using this language, they’ve already programmed 60 circuits with different functions, and 45 of them worked correctly the first time they were tested – which is a remarkable achievement. The circuits were also strikingly fast, and the whole process promises to revolutionize DNA engineering. Before, it could take months or years to design such a circuit. Now, it can be done in less than a day.
Dr. Voigt’s team plans to work on several different applications using this approach — bacteria that can be swallowed to aid in digestion of lactose; bacteria that can live on plant roots and produce insecticide if they sense the plant is under attack; and yeast that can be engineered to shut off when they are producing too many toxic byproducts in a fermentation reactor.
What do you think about this rapidly developing revolutionary computer industry? Can it replace drugs and medicine in future? Can it help to cure cancer and AIDS? Will it make a living cell immortal?
Please feel free to share with us your opinion and thoughts here below.
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Professional Software Development
We are often asked about which iOS game engine to use. It is believed that most companies are looking for a free game engine so here is a comparison of the different open source iPhone game engines that actually have apps out there. Also these game engines now support the iPad.
The Sparrow Framework is a very lightweight 2D game engine created in Objective-C.
It was built from ground up for iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch. You can easily integrate it with your existing UIKit apps, access all iOS APIs directly and benefit from native performance.
If you have already worked with Adobe Flash or Starling, you will feel right at home: Sparrow uses the same concepts and naming schemes. Even if you’re coming from a different background, you’ll get the hang of it quickly, because everything is designed to be as intuitive and easy to use as possible.
The game framework includes all the necessary features you’d require for creating a basic 2D game such as easy animation, and a sound engine.
The Cocos2D iPhone game engine is a port of a game engine originally created in Python and converted to iPhone Objective-C. As you can tell from the name, Cocos2D is designed for 2D games, that being said, although the engine is in a 2D world, the engine includes a growing collection of high quality 3D special effects. Cocos2D has also been released on the Mac so you can ease the release on 2 platforms.
Cocos2D is the first engine to check out, while many may be turned off by the engine not supporting a 3d world, if you look at most of the top iPhone games the gameplay is 2D, in fact the iPhone’s touch screen controls can make it difficult to operate in a 3D world.
The engine provides more examples than any of the other engines out there because of the large community.
iSGL3D (iOS Scene Graph Library) is a 3D framework for the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch written in Objective-C, enabling the creativity of developers to flourish in a 3D world without the complexities of OpenGL.
With its rich set of features, iSGL3D provides the necessary tools to develop 3D applications in an incredibly short time frame, even with a minimum of experience in 3D graphics. The principal behind iSGL3D is to make construction and manipulation of 3D scenes as simple as possible for a developer.
With a single line of code you can add a 3D object whether it is a simple primitive, a sprite (or particle) or your own imported asset. Properties on these objects allow you to modify their appearance, position, rotation and more very simply. You can add containers too to group objects and manipulate them together. In a short period of time you can build up a complex 3D scene.
The Moai SDK is an open source 2D game engine. It designed more for people who know what they’re doing. While it includes the ability to start developing a game immediately from a downloadable binary, it only supports using the FreeGLUT library on the desktop. It is designed in such a way that it expects the developer to be able to create the windowing system themselves.
The main language used with Moai is Lua. Most of the time you shouldn’t need to use C++ to extend the base engine, but the capability to do so is there. The documentation for the Lua codebase is kind of weak however, so you should be ready to do some searching to find out how to use various capabilities. You can create your games with Moai on both Windows (Visual Studio) and Mac (Xcode). In order to
submit your games to the iOS app store you will need to do so with a Mac.
The Oolong Engine is written in C++ with some help from Objective-C. It will help you to create new games and port existing games to the iPhone, the iPod touch and the iPad.
Oolong provides support for a wide variety of features and provides excellent performance.
Haxe is a multi-platform language that most notably compiles to SWF and has been used in many Flash games.
Galaxy Game Engine
The Galaxy Game Engine is a very promising engine with an extensive feature set. This is a BSD licensed 3D engine that includes some very useful tools such as a level editor, terrain editor, model viewer, particle editor, and shader IDE.
Sure, we may make this list longer, but let me stop here. The most important thing, which I’d like to notice, is that you should select the engine which fits your project needs and suits your purposes in the best way.
And what do you think? To what engine would you give your preference?
Feel free to share with us your thoughts!
This last option — which is currently the only one available to those who truly object to Google’s new policy — could be very difficult, especially for Android users. And most especially for those who have recently invested in Samsung’s Galaxy Nexus Smartphone, which is pretty much useless outside of the Google net verse.
I must admit, the idea of being completely unable to opt out of specific privacy issues has me very troubled. My immediate reaction is to read Google’s policies, check out some of the more knowledgeable commentators on the subject, and if I find that I do agree with those privacy activists who believe that Google has stepped too far over the line, to join those hoping to pressure the company to alter its new policy.
Google’s applications and products have become an important resource for a large number of people. Their new policy has just been announced, and has over a month to be put into effect. Things can go several ways at this point: Google could simply stick to its guns and hope that the resulting fallout will only be a bit of bad publicity and a relatively few lost users. But if enough Google users become uneasy, Google could back off (the way Facebook has several times over the last few years), at least in it’s “all or nothing” opt-out policy. It will be interesting to watch.
Professional Software Development
It’s well known that Android is fragmented or, as Google CEO Eric Schmidt contends, “Differentiated.” In a bid to codify design principles for the operating system’s look and feel, Google unveiled Android Design at CES 2012.
This website seeks to help app developers create apps with a more uniform look and feel for Android 4.0, also known as “Ice Cream Sandwich.”
“[Google] definitely wants to have a uniform look. They never have provided a style guide before,” Melissa Skrbic-Huss, creative lead at Amadeus Consulting, told LinuxInsider.
“This is Google’s attempt to try and rein in the craziness of how Android apps look,” said Al Hilwa, a research program director at IDC.
The major issue with Android’s fragmentation “is the loss of brand identity,” he told LinuxInsider. “If you call a device an Android device, what does that mean?”
The Android Design website goes into great detail. Among other things, it spells out Google’s creative vision, design principles, style, themes, typography, patterns, gestures, building blocks, and switches and dialogs.
Google has three overarching design goals for its core apps and the Android OS at large.
One is that apps should be sleek and aesthetically pleasing on multiple levels, with crisp, meaningful layout and typography, and clear, fast transitions. The experience should be “magical,” Google said.
The second is that the apps should be intuitive and easy to use, without overwhelming users with too many choices.
Third, the apps should empower people to try new things and use the apps in inventive new ways while feeling personal.
The Android Guide is Google’s attempt to inject a level of standardization in Android’s look and feel. Google is probably trying to resolve some of developers’ complaints about Android.
Developers have to worry about differences in the UI of different versions of Android, differences in hardware specs, and differences in the versions of Android that run on various hardware platforms, Simon Khalaf, president and CEO of Flurry, told LinuxInsider.
“Software and applications are the fuel of an ecosystem, and software developers make that fuel,” he pointed out.
Fragmentation enabled the rapid pace of R&D development — “a key factor in Android’s success,” according to Hilwa — but the problems with the OS “will become more prominent to the extent that the market matures and the growth rates flatten.”
Schmidt’s discussion of fragmentation “is evidence that it’s an issue for the brand and the platform,” he argued.
Ideally you have created an app that is so incredible that everyone will want to tell all their friends about it. Even if this is true, there are cases where the merits of your app alone may not initiate the momentum you desire. To draw more attention to your app, it is good to have additional content that you can use to persuade potential users to take a look at what you have to offer.
Exposing your app in places outside of the App Store is essential in maximizing your potential user base.
Here are methods that any app developer who wants to draw more users to their apps can use.
Either dedicate some time to a related project or spin off a snippet or segment of your project into something you can publish through open source or other code outlets. When you post your code, oftentimes you will be allowed to post a support URL. Most code sharing sites, like other social sites, have profiles where you can also post links to your site. If your code is useful or interesting, you will have a shot at attracting links.
Tutorials, articles, white papers, video clips, and other types of content are ways to draw attention to your app. Extra content can be used in places to get targeted traffic. If your content is good enough, other places may use or link to your content and create more awareness.
Combine input from your content and other content sources into one consolidated feed of information that can be syndicated. Even an aggregation of feeds can still represent good content if the feeds are chosen well. A good news feed source will get picked up by automated systems and draw the attention of individual publishers.
Create a group
There is more to the social Internet than Facebook and Twitter. There is a world of forums and other social arenas where you can post information, opinions, and links. You can then interlink these sites to create your own network of interrelated profiles that ultimately lead back to your content and app.
Create a persona
For inbound links and link-bait, forums are great because you can communicate directly with people who may have an interest in your content or app. Often forum users with their own sites are great contacts for word-of-mouth plugs. You can also use related content to indirectly promote your app in these places.
Create a community
Social network sites and places for users to congregate are easier than ever to build. The challenge is attracting users and moderating content. If you can build your own community around content that is related to your app, it is easy to get those community members to find interest in your app.
Create a news source
Newsletters have not gone away, they have just matured. You can still create a quality mailing list and promote your apps and content while also sharing information with existing and potential users. If you are creating or collecting regular news or information as part of your strategy, you can republish your content into a newsletter. Newsletters are a great way to get additional use from your content and deliver it to a receptive audience. If your newsletter is good enough, people will share it and spread the word.
Create a buzz
You should include your URL in all of your emails, signatures, photos, videos, articles, and anywhere else you are permitted. Different places have limitations or restrictions on what you can link, but make sure you use all of them when they are available. If you go somewhere online, you should make it easy for people to know about your content and app.
The success of your app is dependent on how many users you acquire. The App Store is a great source of initial traffic, but it is unwise to rely solely on it to carry your sales. Depending on your niche, getting targeted traffic can be very competitive, so you will need every advantage you can get. If you include these essentials in your marketing efforts, you will boost the number of eyeballs that see your app.